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Who will drive a car?Nowadays this question  became a headache.Whether we are going for trip,wedding,shops,etc. 
But modern problem required modern solution and that's why we are moving towards                                  AUTONOMOUS CARS.An autonomous car is a vehicle capable of sensing its environment and operating without human involvement. A human passenger is not required to take control of the vehicle at any time, nor is a human passenger required to be present in the vehicle at all. An autonomous car can go anywhere a traditional car goes and do everything that an experienced human driver does.

How do autonomous cars work?

Autonomous cars rely on sensors, actuators, complex algorithms, machine learning systems, a lotnd powerful processors to execute software.

Autonomous cars create and maintain a map of their surroundings based on a variety of sensors situated in different parts of the vehicle. Radar sensors monitor the position of nearby vehicles. Video cameras detect traffic lights, read road signs, track other vehicles, and look for pedestrians. Lidar (light detection and ranging) sensors bounce pulses of light off the car’s surroundings to measure distances, detect road edges, and identify lane markings. Ultrasonic sensors in the wheels detect curbs and other vehicles when parking.

Sophisticated software then processes all this sensory input, plots a path, and sends instructions to the car’s actuators, which control acceleration, braking, and steering. Hard-coded rules, obstacle avoidance algorithms, predictive modeling, and object recognition help the software follow traffic rules and navigate obstacles.

Cars with self-driving features   Google Waymo project is an example of a self-driving car that is almost entirely autonomous. It still requires a human driver to be present but only to override the system when necessary. It is not self-driving in the purest sense, but it can drive itself in ideal conditions. It has a high level of autonomy. Many of the cars available to consumers today have a lower level of autonomy but still have some self-driving features. The self-driving features that are available in many production cars as of 2019 include the following: 

Hands-free steering centers the car without the driver's hands on the wheel. The driver is still required to pay attention.       Adaptive cruise control (ACC) down to a stop automatically maintains a selectable distance between the driver's car and the car in front. 

Lane-centering steering intervenes when the driver crosses lane markings by automatically nudging the vehicle toward the opposite lane marking.

What are the benefits of autonomous cars?

The scenarios for convenience and quality-of-life improvements are limitless. The elderly and the physically disabled would have independence. If your kids were at summer camp and forgot their bathing suits and toothbrushes, the car could bring them the missing items. You could even send your dog to a veterinary appointment.But the real promise of autonomous cars is the potential for dramatically lowering CO2 emissions. In a recent study, experts identified three trends that, if adopted concurrently, would unleash the full potential of autonomous cars: vehicle automation, vehicle electrification, and ridesharing. By 2050, these “three revolutions in urban transportation” could:

1.Reduce traffic congestion (30% fewer vehicles on the road).

2.Cut transportation costs by 40% (in terms of vehicles, fuel, and infrastructure).

3.Improve walkability and livability.

4.Free up parking lots for other uses (schools, parks, community centers).

5.Reduce urban CO2 emissions by 80% worldwide.


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