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India is the second most populated country in the world. The population of India is equivalent to 17.7% of the world population. According to the 2019 revision of the world population prospects population stood at around 1,352,642,280. 

It is estimated that India will overcome china and will become the most populated country in the world in the coming years.

over-population is one of those problems which are the hardest to eradicate from the world. It causes a lack of resources, an increase in pollution, and unemployment, etc.

To control over-population many countries had tried their way, but many came with a disaster.

for example, 

In 1979, China introduced a one-child policy for its citizen, which, which made them have only a single child. But with this idea, there was an increase in female foeticide, abortion, and came up with one of the worst gender ratios in the world (i.e. 120 men over 100 women) and had to face "421 families" problem (i.e. 1 child has to support the parents along with there parents), which made Chinese people overburdened.

As a result, China hat to decline its one-child policy in 2015 and come with 2 child policy.

In India, about 12 states had put the two-child policy and declined by some of these states. some of these states are Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Gujrat, Uttrakhand, etc...
This policy was declined since it could stimulate the abandonment of women who had children more than 2.

Besides overpopulation, Under-population has its own drawbacks. under condition like Under-population, a country become old and there will a drop in the number of young population
which results in a lack of tax collection and human resources and therefore its government comes under a burden to give pension to its old citizen.

In fact, to cope up with this problem, the Government of Singapore and Germany encourage their citizen to have more kids by giving then Baby Bonus Payout.

These steps are taken only to maintain the economic balance of the country.

In India, many forced steps were taken in order to slow down the increased population of India in 1975-77 in which people were forced to sterilize themselves. About 11 million people were sterilized. But this results in nothing. On the contrary, many people had to face various deceases due to forced sterilization. There were about 1800 reported deaths.

Hence from the above lines we can conclude that the forced way of population control with negative consequences is not good for a country.

Measures to control over-population :

According to some researchers following can be the most effective measures to control over-population:

Development in-

  1. education 
  2. healthcare 
  3. economy

For example:

Kerala has one of the highest literacy rates and has one of the lowest fertility rate (1.8)
On the contrary, Bihar has the poorest literacy rate and has one of the highest fertility rates of 3.5.

The same picture coincides with the relationship between per capita income and fertility rate.

For example-

Goa has one of the highest per capita income with one of the lowest fertility rates and Bihar with one of the lowest per capita income with one of the highest fertility rates.

The same relation also fits with the relationship between infant mortality rate and fertility rate.

for example-

Goa with a low and Bihar with a high infant mortality rate with low and high fertility rates respectively.


From the above data it can be concluded that the development in Education, Healthcare, and Economy can help to control over-population with any other forced trials, and with it is witnessed from the last few decades that increase in development, the fertility rate in every religion falls down.